Given the fluctuating nature of RES like wind and solar, energy storage becomes essential for securing a stable and reliable energy supply. The principle of “power to X” (conversion of electricity to X, where X stands for gas, chemicals or heat) can help develop energy storage solutions, and the use of stored energy for e.g. heating or transport applications.
By providing energy storage solutions, integrating electricity, heat, gas and transport networks or sectors (sector coupling) can considerably increase the flexibility of RES-based energy systems. Thus, connecting electricity, heat, mobility and industrial processes can enable a cost-effective transition to a carbon-neutral energy system and improves its reliability and flexibility.